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法学家  2019, Issue (1): 135-148    DOI:
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论责任保险中被保险人的责任免除请求权
      ——兼评《保险法司法解释四》责任保险相关条文
沈小军,法学博士,上海对外经贸大学法学院讲师。
On the Claim for Exemption from Liability of the Insured in Liability Insurance ——Comment on the Relevant Provisions of Liability Insurance in the Forth Judicial Interpretation of Insurance Law
Shen Xiaojun, Ph.D. in Law, Assistant Professor of Law School of Shanghai University of International Business and Economics.
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摘要 《保险法》第12条赋予被保险人以保险金请求权,这种制度设计存在被保险人不当处分保险金及受害人权利实现的迟延的问题,不利于受害人的保护。责任保险对被保险人的功能在于使自己摆脱第三者的损害赔偿请求,包括承担已经成立的损害赔偿请求权和防御未成立的损害赔偿请求两个方面。为此,保险人不仅要承担被保险人可能的连带赔偿责任,还应负担被保险人参与赔偿关系的合理费用。由于被保险人的赔偿关系决定保险责任的范围,除应当否定被保险人擅自向受害人为清偿及承认行为的效力外,还应当赋予保险人在被保险人赔偿关系中积极的参与权。在损害赔偿责任被有效确定后,被保险人即可行使其请求权,诉讼时效应自此时起算。从解释论上看,《保险法》第65条并未赋予受害人直接请求权,而是一定条件下的保险金请求权。被保险人请求权的内容不在于获得保险金,而在于请求保险人向受害人给付保险金使自己摆脱因保险事故的发生而导致的不利状态,在性质上为责任免除请求权。
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沈小军
关键词责任保险   被保险人   保险金请求权   责任免除请求权     
Abstract: The claim for insurance of the insured conferred by the twelfth article of the insurance law has many adverse effects on the victims, so the sixty-fifth article empowers the victims the claim for insurance under certain conditions.This would not harm the interests of the insured.For the insured, the function of liability insurance lies in the exemption of compensation liability.The insurer should not only undertake the joint and several liability for compensation, but also necessarily to bear the expenses of the insured participating in the compensation action.On the contrary, the reasonable scope of insurance liability is determined by the scope of the claim of the insured.In addition to denying the effect of the insured to the victims without compensation and recognition, the insurer should also give active participation to the insurer.The claim of the insured is feasible after the effective determination of the liability for damages.Therefore, the limitation of action should start from this time.In a word, in the liability insurance, the main purpose of the insured is to avoid the liability of compensation for the injured party through the insurer's payment, but not to get insurance money.Therefore, the claim of the insured is in nature the right of claim for exemption from liability.
Key wordsLiability Insurance   the Insured   Claim for Insurance   Claim for Exemption from Liability   
引用本文:   
沈小军. 论责任保险中被保险人的责任免除请求权
      ——兼评《保险法司法解释四》责任保险相关条文[J]. 法学家, 2019, (1): 135-148.
SHEN Xiao-Jun. On the Claim for Exemption from Liability of the Insured in Liability Insurance ——Comment on the Relevant Provisions of Liability Insurance in the Forth Judicial Interpretation of Insurance Law[J]. , 2019,(1): 135-148.
 
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