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法学家  2018, Issue (5): 76-90    DOI:
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正当防卫的异化与刑法系统的功能
劳东燕,法学博士,清华大学法学院教授。
The Alienation of Justifiable Defense in China and the Function of Criminal Law System
Lao Dongyan, Ph.D. in Law, Professor of Tsinghua University Law School.
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摘要 我国司法中对正当防卫的成立要件,基本上都是朝否定的方向去理解与界定,这使得正当防卫的成立空间极其有限,由此导致立法与司法的严重分化。正当防卫在我国的司法异化,其根源并不在于法教义学的建构不足,而在于司法裁判将自身的功能错误地定位为纠纷解决。正当防卫条款的法律效力欠缺,不仅意味着司法裁判应当实现功能定位的调整,从纠纷解决转向对行为的法与不法进行评价,也意味着需要重新认知刑法系统的功能。在具有高度不确定性的风险社会里,刑法系统的功能在于维持与稳定人们的规范性期待。立基于此,刑法教义学体系需要进行全面的反思与重构,实现基本范式的转型。
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劳东燕
关键词正当防卫   功能主义   规范性期待   刑法体系   规范效力的确证     
Abstract: In the judicial practice of China, the constitutive requirements of justifiable defense have always been interpreted in the direction of denying its claim, which makes it nearly impossible to raise such a defense for the defendant successfully. There is an unbridgeable gap between the legislative provision of justifiable defense and its judicial application. The alienation of justifiable defense in the judicial practice derives not from the poor construction of its dogmatic theory, but mainly from a mistaken self-orientation of conflict resolution for the judicial adjudication in its function. Through the invalidity problem of the statutory provision of justifiable defense in China, we need to consider seriously a shift of the judicial adjudication in its basic function from conflict resolution to evaluating its lawfulness for a conduct. On this basis, the primary function of criminal law system should be redefined correspondingly. In a risk society of high indeterminacy, the primary function of criminal law system lies in making the normative expectation stable among the people. In view of this, it is especially necessary to rethink and reconstruct the dogmatic theory of criminal law on the whole, and to manage to finish the shift of its theoretical framework.
Key wordsJustifiable Defense   Functionalism   Normative Expectation   Dogmatic System of Criminal Law   Confirmation of Norm's Validity   
引用本文:   
劳东燕. 正当防卫的异化与刑法系统的功能[J]. 法学家, 2018, (5): 76-90.
LAO Dong-Yan. The Alienation of Justifiable Defense in China and the Function of Criminal Law System[J]. , 2018,(5): 76-90.
 
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