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法学家  2018, Issue (2): 88-105    DOI:
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司法中的政治理论脉络
    ——从宗教符号判例看法国共和主义下的世俗性与平等
朱明哲,法学博士,中国政法大学比较法学研究院讲师。
Political Theories in Justice:French Republican Laicity and Equality in Jurisprudence Concerning Religious Symbols
Zhu Mingzhe, Assistant Professor, College of Comparative Law, China University of Political Science and Law.
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摘要 近年来法国关于公共空间宗教符号的判例,引起了关于“共和国应当如何处理宗教”的争议。法国法院对私人空间/公共空间和宗教符号/文化符号这两对分类的使用,似乎既没有实现平等对待,又没有坚持世俗性。但是,法国存在一个共和主义政治思想的脉络,这些判例不但确实在这一脉络中产生,而且从中获得融贯性。法国的共和主义强调个人—国家的直接关系和单一、非宗教性的公民身份认同。所以,平等原则在实践中一律否定宗教、民族、语言等身份认同。世俗性则为这种单一的公民身份灌注了独特的宗教观:个人的宗教认同只能留在私人领域,在公共空间必须排除一切宗教符号和话语。基督教的行为模式、社会组织和话语,因为经过了一个多世纪的世俗化过程,现在以非宗教的方式展现,所以往往在实践中被理解为“文化性”的因素。相比之下,主流社会认为其他宗教的行为方式必然是宗教身份认同的体现,并进一步认为其他宗教必然无法与共和主义融合,因而导致这些宗教所要求的行为模式成了法国共和主义脉络中的司法解释不断限制的对象。
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朱明哲
关键词世俗性   平等原则   法国共和主义   宗教符号判例   公民身份     
Abstract: Recent case laws on religious symbols in public space from various European jurisdictions have put French laicity and the principle of equality into debates. These cases seemingly endorse discriminatory treatments against Muslim women under veils and favour the catholic presentations in governmental locations, therefore being compatible neither with equality nor with laicity. These controversial judgements, however, are only comprehensible in the context of French Republicanism—an ideology that underlines the direct relationship between the powerful State and its individual citizens who has no other identity than a unified, universal and secular identity as other fellows. Equality is therefore a principle of denial rather than recognition, and laicity of exclusion rather than integration. Together they forge a unified and unique national identity that renounces any pretention of religious, ethnic, or linguistic communities and that imposes a particular version of State-Church relationship according to which convictional affairs shall be remained in private sphere and not known in public debates. Also, after years of being disciplined by the State, Christianity in France acquired the secular languages to express. For this reason, Christian symbols are considered as cultural, not religious. Symbols of other religions, on the contrary, are firmly described as religious in public discourses.
Key wordsLaicity   Equality   French Republicanism   Case Laws on Religious Symbols   Civil Identity   
引用本文:   
朱明哲. 司法中的政治理论脉络
    ——从宗教符号判例看法国共和主义下的世俗性与平等[J]. 法学家, 2018, (2): 88-105.
ZHU Ming-Zhe. Political Theories in Justice:French Republican Laicity and Equality in Jurisprudence Concerning Religious Symbols[J]. , 2018,(2): 88-105.
 
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