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法学家  2018, Issue (2): 15-31    DOI:
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美国夫妻共同债务制度研究
    ——以美国采行夫妻共同财产制州为中心
缪宇,法学博士,北京市社会科学院博士后工作站、中国社会科学院法学所博士后流动站研究人员。
On the Community Debt of Spouses in the United States——Focusing on the Community Property States
Miao Yu, Ph.D. in Law, Postdoctoral Fellow of Beijing Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Law of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
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摘要 美国采纳夫妻共同财产制的州调整夫妻共同债务的模式包括管理模式、夫妻共同债务模式和分割模式。夫妻一方的婚前债务、夫妻一方在婚姻关系存续期间为夫妻共同体利益负担的债务,以夫妻共同财产和债务人个人财产负责,已经成了各州的共识。但是,夫妻一方在婚姻关系存续期间非为夫妻共同体利益负担的债务,夫妻共同财产是否负责,各州态度不一。这体现了各州对债务人的配偶对夫妻共同财产利益和债权人利益的不同侧重。改革我国夫妻共同债务制度,应当承认债务人的配偶的个人财产原则上不对夫妻共同债务负责,非用于夫妻共同生活的个人债务也能以部分夫妻共同财产受偿。《夫妻共同债务司法解释》应做适当修改。
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缪宇
关键词夫妻共同债务   夫妻共同财产制   夫妻共同体利益   民间借贷     
Abstract: Among various states of the US recognizing community property regime, there are three different approaches to determining liabilities for debts incurred by married couples, namely the managerial system, the community debt system and the partition system. The consensus among those states is that the community property is liable for the premarital debt of either spouse as well as the debt incurred by either spouse during marriage for the benefit of the community. Divergence arises when the states face to the question, whether the community property is liable for the debt which is incurred by either spouse during marriage not for the benefit of the community. This reflects discrepancies among states with respect to the balance of interest between non-debtor spouse and creditor. To reform rules in Chinese law regarding community debt, it is necessary to acknowledge that the non-debtor spouse's own separate property is not liable for the community debt. The debt which is incurred by either spouse during marriage not for the benefit of the community can be satisfied by part of community property. The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on community debt calls for amendments.
Key wordsCommunity Debt of Spouses   Community Property Regime   Benefit for the Community   Informal Lending   
引用本文:   
缪宇. 美国夫妻共同债务制度研究
    ——以美国采行夫妻共同财产制州为中心[J]. 法学家, 2018, (2): 15-31.
MIAO Yu. On the Community Debt of Spouses in the United States——Focusing on the Community Property States[J]. , 2018, 167(2): 15-31.
 
相关文章:   
[1] 孙若军. 论夫妻共同债务“时间”推定规则[J]. 法学家, 2017, 1(1): 146-154.

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