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法学家  2017, Issue (6): 143-157    DOI:
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版权法上的审美判断
梁志文,法学博士,南京师范大学法学院、中国法治现代化研究院教授。
Aesthetic Determinations in Copyright Law
Liang Zhiwen, Ph.D. in Law, professor of Nanjing Normal University Law School.
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摘要 “审美非歧视性”理论认为,由于审美判断的主观性和法官能力的局限性,法官不应对作品作出审美价值上的判断。但是,法官在版权案件中常常不得不进行相关的审美判断,并且自觉或不自觉地运用各种审美理论。由于艺术作品的审美判断区分了版权与工业产权的保护范围、维护着版权保护体系的内在协调,除非属于版权法明确规定的非艺术类客体(如软件、数据库等),法院就不得不考虑作品的艺术性或审美意义,为此有必要为法官正确选择合适的审美理论提供理论依据。“艺术共同体” 标准是法官选择审美理论的重要依据。“艺术共同体”通过对作品形式、作者和读者的审美解读可以形成一致的审美判断,并体现于作品艺术形式的判断与艺术价值的判断之中。
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梁志文
关键词审美非歧视性原则   审美判断   艺术共同体   审美主观性   艺术作品     
Abstract: Aesthetic Non-discrimination theory holds that judges evaluating issues of copyrightability should not take into account the aesthetic quality of the works because of the subjectivity of aesthetic opinions and incompetent judges for aesthetics.However, judges, being aware of it or not, have little choice but do aesthetic determinations because such judgement is required by copyright law for“art”or“aesthetic meaning”, and under some circumstance, assess the artistic contributions belong in the useful article, determining authorship and originality, and making aesthetic judgement to evaluate the substantial similarity between works of plaintiff and defendant.Aesthetic judgement assess the overall character of the work to determine whether it is eligible for copyright protection or industrial property protection, and harmonize the different protection between the author's right and related rights.Thus, the critical issue is not to eliminate the subjectivity of aesthetic determinations, but to provide guides for judges making choice among different aesthetic theories.The“artistic commonwealth”standard, which can make an objective and consistent aesthetic determinations through forms of works, authors' intent and reader's response, is a relatively desirable solution for judges.Meanwhile, judges must realize that the aesthetic biases would hinder the artistic innovation.
Key wordsAesthetic Non-discrimination Principle   Aesthetic Determinations   Artistic Commonwealth   the Subjectivity of Aesthetic Judgement   Artistic Works   
引用本文:   
梁志文. 版权法上的审美判断[J]. 法学家, 2017, (6): 143-157.
LIANG Zhi-Wen. Aesthetic Determinations in Copyright Law[J]. , 2017, 1(6): 143-157.
 
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