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法学家  2017, Issue (6): 43-57    DOI:
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沉默在民商事交往中的意义  
        ——私人自治的多层次平衡
石一峰,法学博士,中南财经政法大学法学院讲师。
The Meaning of Silence in Civil and Commercial Interactions: Multi-level Balance of Private Autonomy
Shi Yifeng, Ph.D. in Law, Lecturer of Law School of Zhongnan University of Economics and Law.
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摘要 沉默本身因其不具备任何表示价值,一般不具有法律意义。行为人沉默也是私人自治的体现。但沉默在例外情形下也可具有法律意义,并表现为一定的类型层级,其背后体现着对私人自治的多层次平衡。其中,沉默在法定或约定情形下可拟制为意思表示,而不管私人的真实意思为何,是对私人自治的强平衡;在存在相应义务而沉默从而造成他方损失时,则需要承担消极利益的损害赔偿责任,是对私人自治的中平衡;在可归责的以沉默引起相对人信赖,相对人善意、信赖又具有合理性时,就需要承担以履行方式维护积极利益的信赖责任,是对私人自治的弱平衡。这种多层次的结构构成了对私人自治平衡的基本范式。
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石一峰
关键词沉默   意思表示拟制   义务违反表现   信赖责任基础   私人自治平衡     
Abstract: Because of the lack of any value of declaration, generally silence does not in itself have any legal meaning.The silence of the feasor is also the expression of private autonomy.However, in exceptional cases, silence can also have legal meaning, which displays in a certain type hierarchy and behind this, it embodies the multi-level balance of private autonomy.Hereinto, no matter what is the real private will, under legal or conventional cases silence can be the fiction of declaration of will.This is the strongest balance of private autonomy.When the feasor has certain obligation but keeps silent, which causes the loss of the other party, he needs to bear the liability of compensation for damages of negative interest.This is the moderale balance of private autonomy.When the feasor imputably causes the reliance of other party by silence and the other party is in good faith, the reliance of other party is reasonable, the feasor needs to bear the reliance-based liability by fulfilling for protecting the positive interest.This is the weakest balance of private autonomy.This multilevel structure constitutes a fundamental paradigm of the balance of private autonomy.
Key wordsSilence   Fiction of Declaration of Will   Performance of Breach of Duty   Basis of Reliance-based Liability   Balance of Private Autonomy   
引用本文:   
石一峰. 沉默在民商事交往中的意义  
        ——私人自治的多层次平衡[J]. 法学家, 2017, (6): 43-57.
SHI Yi-Feng. The Meaning of Silence in Civil and Commercial Interactions: Multi-level Balance of Private Autonomy[J]. , 2017, 1(6): 43-57.
 
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