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法学家  2017, Issue (6): 14-28    DOI:
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地方立法适用中的上位法依赖与实用性考量
俞祺,清华大学法学院博士后研究人员。
Upper Laws Dependence and Practicability Consideration
Yu Qi, Post-Doctoral Researcher of Tsinghua University Law School.
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摘要 实践表明,我国的地方立法并没有架空上位法,反而处于被边缘化的尴尬境地。地方立法被弃用的原因主要包括适用地域性和审级制度下的风险规避、地方立法制度功能缺失以及传播成本和规则认知便宜化等三个方面,表现出了法律适用中的“上位法依赖”倾向。但与此同时,仍然有部分地方立法规范在实践中较为活跃。通过对这些立法文件所涉司法案件的抽样分析,可以发现适用较活跃的立法条文可被归入解释或充实上位法概念、设定地方性标准、确认行政主体地位、确定行政处罚或强制行为、规定当事人权利义务、填补上位法漏洞等情形之中,进而分为细化操作型、赋权确认型和漏洞填补型三类,体现了法律适用中的“实用性考量”。结合正反两方面的经验,要使地方立法具有更强的实效性,则应做到根据需求实施立法供给、强化规范的确定性、有效平衡“安全立法”和“有用立法”的关系并降低立法的传播与学习成本。
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俞祺
关键词地方立法   央地关系   法律实效   法律适用     
Abstract: Legal practice shows that China's local legislations fail to substitute upper laws, instead, they are in an embarrassing situation of being marginalized.According to interviews with law enforcement officials and judges, the reasons why local legislations are abandoned include three aspects of factors, which demonstrate the tendency of“upper laws dependence”: 1)risk aversion under the regional application of local legislations and levels of trial in court system; 2)function defects of local law-making system; and 3)communication cost and oversimplified understanding of legislations.Meanwhile, some other local rules are quite active in practice.After sampling analysis of cases which contain those rules, we can find that the active local legislations can be ascribed into categories such as interpreting upper law concepts, setting local criteria, confirming the legal status of administrative bodies, clarifying administrative penalty or administrative coercion, providing rights and obligations of interested parties and filling legal loopholes.These categories can be further summarized into three types as“specification and operation type”, “empowerment and confirmation type”and“loopholes filling type”, which demonstrate“consideration of practicability”in application of law.According to experiences on both sides of a coin, to make local legislations more effective, the following need to be done: 1)supplying legislation based on requirement; 2)strengthening the certainty of rules; 3)balancing“safe legislation”with“useful legislation”; and 4)bringing down the cost of communicating or learning new laws.
Key wordsLocal Legislation   Central-local Relations   Efficacy of Law   Application of Law   
引用本文:   
俞祺. 地方立法适用中的上位法依赖与实用性考量[J]. 法学家, 2017, (6): 14-28.
YU Qi. Upper Laws Dependence and Practicability Consideration[J]. , 2017,(6): 14-28.
 
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